Jump up ^ Ames, Daniel R.; Flynn, Francis J. “What breaks a leader: The curvilinear relation between assertiveness and leadership”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92 (2): 307–324. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1997.
Mark van Vugt and Anjana Ahuja in Naturally Selected: The Evolutionary Science of Leadership present evidence of leadership in nonhuman animals, from ants and bees to baboons and chimpanzees. They suggest that leadership has a long evolutionary history and that the same mechanisms underpinning leadership in humans can be found in other social species, too. Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, in Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence, present evidence that only humans and chimpanzees, among all the animals living on Earth, share a similar tendency for a cluster of behaviors: violence, territoriality, and competition for uniting behind the one chief male of the land. This position is contentious. Many animals beyond apes are territorial, compete, exhibit violence, and have a social structure controlled by a dominant male (lions, wolves, etc.), suggesting Wrangham and Peterson’s evidence is not empirical. However, we must examine other species as well, including elephants (which are matriarchal and follow an alpha female), meerkats (who are likewise matriarchal), and many others.
Sure, it feels good to be needed and step in to save the day, but solving every problem is not the way to do it. When you involve yourself too frequently, you rob your employees of their sense of engagement and personal accountability—which is actually a key source of motivation (and happiness). Part of being a leader is providing an environment in which your team can think independently and solve problems for themselves.
The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader’s effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorability (later called situational control). The theory defined two types of leader: those who tend to accomplish the task by developing good relationships with the group (relationship-oriented), and those who have as their prime concern carrying out the task itself (task-oriented). According to Fiedler, there is no ideal leader. Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. When there is a good leader-member relation, a highly structured task, and high leader position power, the situation is considered a “favorable situation”. Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable situations, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favorability.
Openness means being able to listen to new ideas, even if they do not conform to the usual way of thinking. Good leaders are able to suspend judgment while listening to others’ ideas, as well as accept new ways of doing things that someone else thought of. Openness builds mutual respect and trust between leaders and followers, and it also keeps the team well supplied with new ideas that can further its vision.
In order to be a truly effective leader, you need to take stock of your personal characteristics and skill sets and assess your strengths and weaknesses. Further education in leadership and management coupled with continued professional development of your skills are key. In this age of digital enlightenment and rapidly evolving workplaces, the definition of effective leadership is constantly evolving and to keep up, leaders need to continuously ask questions of themselves.
Rational also means, logically. That means that your thinking should be founded on fact, not opinion. Your thinking should be organized, sequential, systematized, defined, numerical, clear and distinct. Logical thinking centres on looking for chains of “cause and effects”. Logical thinkers ask: What is the cause of this? What would be the probable effects of that? This is the role of the intellect, in leadership.
Confidence can be had in any situation. Imagine saying, “I don’t know the answer,” while looking down, thumbs twiddling, and your legs fidgeting. Now imagine saying, “I don’t know the answer,” with your head up, your shoulders back, and looking the speaker in the eye. Not knowing something is fine — just be confident that you don’t know it! A lack of knowledge has nothing to do with your confidence (or ability to lead).
One of the greatest challenges that will stand in the way of an entrepreneur from getting what they want is understanding what “to do” with the opportunities that fall in their laps along the way. This is where leverage becomes such an important concept that people going into business need to understand, and it takes a certain kind of mind to think “outside the box” in situations to find the value in a new relationship or circumstance. The same people who are too scared to quit their day jobs are also the same people who do not know how to leverage the assets and relationships in their life. A successful entrepreneur, on the other hand, is constantly finding ways to create profits and new opportunities each and every day.
In the end, neither boy is a great leader. Ralph certainly has more concern for his followers and a more developed conscience. Though he makes mistakes along the way, he obviously has a clear understanding of right and wrong and has compassion for others. While Ralph is a good leader in terms of his humanity and morality, Jack might have to be considered a more effective leader for one simple reason: at the end of the novel, every boy but Ralph has joined his tribe. Whatever his methods, he commands his savages and, if the ship does not arrive to rescue the boys, he would have been sole leader of the boys on the island. He is chief of the savages, but he has a tribe.
Become passionate. Would you look to someone for guidance and leadership if they did not truly care about the goals of the group? Of course not! Great leaders are not just focused on getting group members to finish tasks; they have a genuine passion and enthusiasm for the projects they work on. Start by thinking of different ways that you can express your passion. Let people know that you care about their progress. When one person shares something with the rest of the group, be sure to tell them how much you appreciate such contributions.
The world is more complex than ever before, and yet what customers often respond to best is simplicity — in design, form, and function. Taking complex projects, challenges, and ideas and distilling them to their simplest components allows customers, staff, and other stakeholders to better understand and buy into your vision. We humans all crave simplicity, and so today’s leader must be focused and deliver simplicity.
Keeping up isn’t enough. Business is competitive, and as a leader you have to be ahead of the curve. Learning, growth and responding to change are key. Cultivate a passion for learning in yourself and your team.
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The lesson, says Nohria, is that Churchill and other great leaders are pragmatists who can deal with difficult realities but still have the optimism and courage to act. “Enduring setbacks while maintaining the ability to show others the way to go forward is a true test of leadership,” he asserts.
You will not live long enough to figure it all out for yourself. And what a waste it would be to try, when you can learn from others who have gone before. Ben Franklin once said, “Men can either buy their wisdom or they can borrow it from others. The great tragedy is that most men prefer to buy it, to pay full price in terms of time and treasure.”
Transformational leaders have an upbeat, optimistic attitude that serves as a source of inspiration for followers. If leaders seem discouraged or apathetic, members of the group are likely to also become uninspired.
Jump up ^ Ilies, Remus; Morgeson, Frederick P.; Nahrgang, Jennifer D. (2005-06-01). “Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being: Understanding leader–follower outcomes”. The Leadership Quarterly. 16 (3): 373–394. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.002. ISSN 1048-9843.
Vision provides direction and without direction, there’s not much point to all that planning; your small business will still flail about. So if you don’t have one already, take your first step by creating a vision statement for your business.
Critical feedback—when administered right—can be powerful,too. When issues arise, talk about risks or details people might not have anticipated. Walking through these unforeseen challenges together can affirm your team’s thinking, which will build their confidence and, over time, make them less reliant on you.
Get in the habit of paying attention to small details around you. Appreciate the feeling of the sun on your skin, the sensation of your feet walking on the ground, or the artwork in the you are eating in. Noticing things like these will help you silence a rambling mind and appreciate every moment.
With rare skill, Polman has combined noble corporate goals with savvy management in his five years as CEO (UL). Of course, strong leadership also often goes hand in hand with bold ambition: Polman took a big risk by declaring his — to double the company’s size even while reducing its environmental footprint and increasing its positive social impact. He is pulling it off and energizing employees in the process.
Never forget where you’re coming from. Many people, after achieving some success, bad-mouth where they come from. This is a sure recipe for failure in the future as the same ones you talk badly about now can be the ones who rescue you in the long run.
Jump up ^ Businessballs management information website – Leadership Theories page, “Integrated Psychological Approach” section: http://www.businessballs.com/leadership-theories.htm#integrated-psychological-leadership
A leader needs to understand change management in order to lead an organisation through the process. For example, change management requires the creation and communication of a compelling vision. It also requires the change to be driven forward firmly, and leadership to make it ‘stick’ if the organisation is not to revert within a very short period.
If want to study more in one day, follow a schedule of 1 hour and 40 minutes for study, 5 min for quick revision and 15 min to relax. For next hour, change the subject. Like this, you can achieve 6 to 8 hours study continuously.
One of the more important qualities of a good leader is courage. Having the quality of courage means that you are willing to take risks in the achievement of your goals with no assurance of success. Because there is no certainty in life or business, every commitment you make and every action you take entails a risk of some kind.
The simple adage “when life hands you lemons, make lemonade” is a great example of using leverage to move your business forward. Many people will make the lemonade and drink it themselves. A true entrepreneur will make lemonade and sell it to those without lemons, and use the profits to buy more lemons or move into another business. While today a polarizing political figure, Donald Trump is a great example of an entrepreneur who time and time again used leverage to acquire crucial pieces of real estate or strike very lucrative business deals. Love him or hate him, his book The Art of The Deal is a great resource on how leverage can make someone mega successful.
Further, leaders people follow are accountable and trustworthy. If progress towards accomplishing the goals ceases, the leader takes responsibility to analyze the problem—he doesn’t search for people to blame.
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I have learned over the years that a big success on a team is something to cherish and relish when it happens. When my team scored a big project, we should have celebrated with banana splits and trumpet parades all around the office. By not reveling as much, we probably zapped the motivation to push harder on the next project.
Good leaders are good communicators. You have to do it all the time. It means thinking about what other people know and how they are experiencing what you are doing, especially change. It’s important to communicate in a way other people can relate to and engage with. And you have to make it easy for people to remember what you are saying: make it simple, clear and coherent.
Motivating a team is worthless unless you provide direction; unless you turn that motivation toward a goal and lead the team to it. It is the ability to lead others that truly sets a manager apart from their peers. Remember that leaders are found at all levels of the organization, so be one.